Month: June 2011

Rwanda 6: Kibuye


Kibuye is on the edge of Lake Kivu, and well, it’s just stunning…look at those views. Tranquil…that’s the best word I can think of for it.  Arriving there was a breath of fresh air (literally) after the bus journey from Cyangugu.  That was a hot, sticky, dusty, bumpy 8.5 hour epic on a dirt road that hugged the hills that slope steeply down to the lake. I’m posting the Google Map (which incidentally reckons the journey would take 1 hour 25 mins – lol) so you can see just how wiggly it is.

The bus ride also redefined my understanding of the word ‘full’. For most of the journey I was crushed up against Laura, two men in fleeces (fleeces!) and a very beautiful woman with a very cute baby, which spent the journey smearing me with a mix of regurgitated banana and breast milk. Every time I was convinced that the bus couldn’t take another person, suitcase, basket, sack of avocados, stalk of bananas, spare wheel for the bus etc people would shift around a bit, reorganise and make the space.

So after a whole day of that, arriving in this tiny, cool, quiet little town was amazing.

And now I’m going to bring the conversation back round to genocide again. Sorry. (PS I am also writing a post in which I interrogate my motivation behind going to Rwanda and assassinate my own character, so there’s no need to think I’m a complete wanker utterly lacking in self-awareness. It’s just taking me a while to write.)

See the picture with the church on the hill top in the distance? That’s St Jean. There’s a genocide memorial outside the church, because a huge number of people were murdered there. I could tell you it was 10,000, but the problem is that numbers don’t really mean all that they should mean to us when they’re that high, do they?

It’s things like that that bring you up short in Rwanda – you’re somewhere so beautiful, so peaceful, where people seem so friendly and cooperative but where something so violent and horrendous happened that you can’t even begin to understand it.

And you really, really want to understand it.

You want to know how something like that can happen, what pushes a country, a community, an individual to those lengths. I’ve got a pile of books about Rwanda now to try and help me understand. I don’t think you can ever really understand it though. (If you’re interested, I can’t recommend We wish to inform you that tomorrow we will be killed with our families by Philip Gourevitch highly enough, although it is about 13 years old now, and things in Rwanda have changed a lot since then.)

Anyway, I’m going to stop writing now, because this isn’t a topic that I feel comfortable with or that I feel I have any place to comment on.


The Value of Content, Part 2: Nobody???s Perfect ?? Brain Traffic Blog

Once upon a time, I wrote a blog called The Value of Content, Part 1: Adam Smith Never Expected This. It was about how traditional economics make it difficult to assign value to content. In that blog, I promised to write a sequel about measuring content ???in a few weeks.??? That was (blush) 94 weeks ago. (I???d like to say I was abducted by aliens or something, but in reality, I was on a bunch of exciting content strategy projects. Way cooler than aliens, actually.)

Since ???Part 1??? was published, content strategy has gained a lot of ground in the business world. However, justifying budgets and resources for content projects is still a major challenge. So, here, at long last, are seven tips to help you measure content effectively.

Get it? Measurement!

(photo by HeyThereSpaceman. cc licensed)

Disclosure: There???s no silver bullet

I wish I could give you a simple, foolproof way to make all your content measurement dreams come true. Unfortunately, there???s no magic app or secret mathematical equation that does all the work. Sure, there are tools that streamline the measurement process, but no matter how many fancy widgets you buy, measuring content value will still take a significant amount of time and attention.

1. Don???t worry about exact numbers

Before we talk about how to measure content, let???s talk about measurement itself. Most people think of measurement as a practice of absolutes (I am exactly 5 feet 9 inches tall, my dog weighs exactly 98 pounds, etc.). With this mindset, things that can???t be measured exactly can???t be measured at all.

This perception is reinforced in the business world. As I explained in my previous blog, our economic system was created when most products were tangible things, such as shoes or chairs. Calculating the manufacturing costs, units sold, and price for these products is relatively easy. The CFO sticks all the data in a fancy Excel spreadsheet and poof: the company???s year-end profit from shoes is exactly $4,829,006.56. (I???m oversimplifying it, but you get the gist.)

However, when somebody tries to measure something intangible???like the value of content???it???s impossible to come up with an exact number. So, people assume content is immeasurable.

Luckily, most scientists, mathematicians, and statisticians say exact measurement is a myth. To them, the goal of measurement is to reduce uncertainty. Get this: it???s impossible to eliminate uncertainty all together???all measurement is based on assumptions. That means, when measuring content value, you don???t have to come up with precise numbers. You just need to provide enough information that your stakeholders feel comfortable making a decision. Think estimates, not exacts. Now, doesn???t that seem easier?

2. Start by defining what you???re measuring

Ok, so how do you reduce uncertainty? The first thing you need to do is decide what you???re measuring. It might sound simple, but it???s actually one of the trickiest parts of the process. The key is to get as specific as possible, because the more specific you get, the more uncertainty you???ll be able to eliminate.

Start by answering the following questions:

  • How are you defining ???content???? Many people forget to answer this critical question. I have my own ideas about what content is, but your definition will depend on your situation. You may need to break ???content??? down into smaller distinct categories. For example, if you define content as ???text,??? you may need to define several types of text (marketing vs. help text, intro paragraphs vs. sidebars, etc.). List each component or distinct type of content individually???they may need to be measured differently.
  • What does the content help the user do? In other words, what is the function of the content? Most project teams identify high-level user tasks, but they don???t go deep enough. You need to get into the dirty details. For each piece of content, list as many functions as you can and rank them in order of importance. The more explicit the function, the better. For example, instead of saying the ???content on our furniture store website facilitates the buying process,??? you might say content on a product detail page needs to:
    • Accurately describe the furniture
    • Justify the cost of the furniture
    • Provide clear details about furniture customization options
    • Guide the user through the purchase process
  • What are the desired characteristics of the content? In addition to function, most organizations want content to have certain traits. For example, they may want it to be professional (no spelling errors) or ???on brand.??? Again, the more information you can gather about these characteristics, the more easily you will be able to measure them.

3. Assign values to your functions and characteristics

This step really pushes content people out of their comfort zone, because it involves math. And assumptions. I promise it???s not as hard as you think.

For each of the functions and characteristics you identified, assign a value based on data or educated assumptions. (You can use monetary amounts, percentages, or arbitrary point systems. Just as long as you use numbers.) Document all of the data and assumptions you use, so you can show them to your stakeholders later, if necessary.

Using our furniture website example from above, assigning values can go something like this:

  • The average chair costs $500
  • Analytics show that 50 people start the process of purchasing a chair online every day, but only 10 finish the process
  • User research shows that the instructions on the purchase pages are very confusing
  • We assume 5-10 people leave the purchasing process because of something unrelated to the site, and 5-10 leave the process when they see the shipping costs
  • We assume the remaining 20-30 people would complete the purchasing process if the instructions were more helpful
  • Therefore, the value of the instructional content is likely around $300,000-450,000 per month ($500 x 20-30 people x 30 days)
  • The cost of fixing the content is approximately $25,000

(In this case, we can prove with a large amount of certainty that the price of the project is worth doing!)

A lot of work? Yes. Worth it? Absolutely.

In some cases, documenting only your most important functions and characteristics is necessary to help your stakeholders make decisions with certainty. In other cases, you???ll have to do the whole enchilada. (Hint: Tons of data/assumptions can get confusing, so on big projects you may want to create a content scorecard or matrix. You could even put it in Excel???just like the CFO. See how official you???re getting?)

4. The more ways you measure, the more certainty you get

At Brain Traffic, when we ask a new web client how they measure content effectiveness, they often give us a Google analytics login and a smile. Analytics are great. But, no single measurement method captures the complete picture of content.

Try to use a variety of measurement methods, instead of relying on favorite or easy methods. When you use two or more methods, you’ll get more well-rounded results. Some common methods include:

  • Analytics: use technology tools to collect data
  • User research: ask the users directly what they want or observe their behavior
  • External expert review: ask content experts or industry peers to review/rate content
  • Internal expert review: get insights from knowledgeable people inside your organization, such as sales people or customer service reps
  • Competitive comparison: measure direct competitors and your content on the same factors and compare

The more ways and more often you measure, the more certainty you get. But, you likely won???t be able to use all of these methods???just choose the ones that are most applicable to your organization.

5. Establish a baseline

Taking a baseline measurement is simple: before you make any changes, make sure you measure your existing content using the same metrics you???ll use on the new stuff. It can be painful to get feedback on content you already know is crappy, but the baseline will help you measure the impact of your future content work. And if all goes well, you???ll have handy, glowing before-and-after stats to pass around at your company???s next board meeting.

6. Measure regularly

Once your new content is live, set a regular schedule to measure the content using the established metrics. This will help you see how content performs over time as business and user needs change. In addition, it helps you understand how content activities change du
e to events like holidays or product launches.

7. Be realistic about measurement budgets

It???s important to plan a budget for your measurement initiative. Although measurement isn???t always expensive, it does take time, resources, and money. Scale your efforts to the size of the content project. If the whole content project is going to cost $50,000, you can look at basic analytics and do some informal user testing with your friends. But, if your company is looking to invest several million dollars in a content venture, $50,000 on measurement is money well spent.

Phew, I had a lot to say

Well, there you have it. Two years of pent-up measurement info in one ginormous blog. Although this is probably too much information for a blog, it???s just the tip of the iceberg in the content measurement conversation. In fact, it???s a tiny ice cube.

Measuring content value is important to content strategists, but it???s not just a content strategy issue. It???s one of the most important business discussions of the information age. There???s still lots to learn, let us know what you think.

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Rwanda 4: Cyangugu? Kamembe? Rusizi?


So I’m not entirely sure where these photos are from…it’s either Cyangugu, Kamembe or Rusizi, or all three. Place names can be a little confusing in Rwanda sometimes.

Anyway, I’m going to call in Cyangugu, and it’s in the far west of Rwanda, on Lake Kivu, so close to Democratic Republic of Congo you can hear people talking on the other side of the river that separates the two countries. The drive there from Butare took us through the beautiful, misty, high Nyungwe Forest and miles of tea plantations, before you finally catch sight of Lake Kivu.

The bit which I think is called Rusizi right on the shore of the lake where the border is really atmospheric – it has the air of a town that someone once tried to invest a bit of money in in the fleeting hope that one day it would be busy, before giving up, moving on and letting it fade and relax into life as a sleepy outpost. There are a couple of ‘upmarket’ hotels – Hotel du Lac and Hotel des Chutes – and of course the Falls nightclub which sadly remained locked up tight. It was Laura’s birthday, so instead of clubbing we celebrated in style with a few Amarulas in Hotel du Lac, where the amazing waiter Olivier made me cringe with English embarrassment by running to get whatever it was we’d ordered.

Alongside all the peeling colonial grandeur, it’s a bustling small town – men heading out on the in canoes, women drying fish, people carrying huge towers of thousands of eggs on their heads across the border (you had to see it to believe it – are there no chickens in DRC?!), women lugging massive sacks of avocados down the river bank and every patch of spare land being farmed.

We stayed in another church guesthouse, staffed by a mixture of smiley nuns and scary nuns, with a very neat and tidy reception that I had to take a photo of.

Rwanda 3: Butare

Butare is described as Rwanda’s second city and the intellectual centre of the country. To me it felt like something from a Western – Clint Eastwood wouldn’t look all that out of place walking down the main street with its Adobe-style buildings. Well, alright he would look pretty out of place, but you know what I mean.

It’s also got a great museum (I learnt that the high jump was a traditional sport in Rwanda – check out this picture), an arbouretum and it smells amazing because of all the eucalyptus trees.

We stayed in a church guesthouse there (we stayed in church guesthouses just about everywhere we went – most towns seem to have one, they’re clean, cheap and usually have amazing gardens). This one was special though – it was a bit like stables, with lots of cubicles off a long, dark corridor with wooden partition walls that didn’t quite reach all the way to the ceiling. The noise at night was shocking – a cacophony of snoring, chattering, tinny music from mobile phones and something I couldn’t identify which sounded a lot like a wasp trapped in a guitar.


Rwanda 2: people

I didn’t take many pictures of people in Rwanda (apart from of the friends I went with). I got ticked off by a couple of people who thought I was going to take their picture and I’ve never really been very comfortable asking total strangers if I can photograph them.

So, in the end I only took two: one was a sneaky shot from the hip of two women in Changugu which I really like but feel guilty about, and the other was of a man near Lake Burera who was cycling past and stopped and asked me to take his picture.


Rwanda 1: Kigali


I like Kigali – it’s incredibly clean and tidy, bigger than you might expect and very, very hilly. We walked around a lot – it’s very spread out and the city centre doesn’t really feel like a city centre (it’s full of hardware shops). My favourite bit was the Muslim Quarter – colourful and full of character.

The non-descript looking hotel is the Mille Collines from Hotel Rwanda and Sunday at the Pool in Kigali. I found visiting it very strange, but on my last day we did play at being NGO workers/UN staff/journalists/business people/diplomats by having a breakfast buffet there.

The whole NGO/UN/foreign investor thing was new to me, but it seems like it’s just another part of life in Kigali – there were more street hawkers selling copies of the Economist and memory sticks than there were selling postcards or carvings or other tourist trinkets. I guess I shouldn’t have been surprised at the assumption that Europeans and North Americans who visit Kigali aren’t there for a holiday.

We also went to the Kigali Genocide Memorial Centre. We all felt genuinely apprehensive beforehand and we had a quiet few hours afterwards – it gives you a lot to think about and it’s harrowing. I don’t want to write anything else about it – I can’t say anything of any value, and talking about my reaction to it is pointless and self-indulgent. However, I can’t help but get on my self-righteous soapbox about the couple who ignored the signs saying ‘no photography’ and took smiling holiday snapshots in the gardens by the mass graves and the two girls who started eating a snack while they were going round. People like that don’t deserve passports. Rant over.